Emission data is one of the most important types of model input information greatly determining the results of modelling of pollutants long-range transport. Reliable values of emission at the model input are vital for estimating realistic levels of pollution using the models.

Significant amount of heavy metals is emitted to the atmosphere by anthropogenic sources. Currently the main anthropogenic emission sources in the EMEP region are combustion and industrial process. In addition to the anthropogenic sources, considerable amount of particle-bound heavy metals (e.g., Pb or Cd) enters the atmosphere through wind re-suspension of dust, containing heavy metals. Heavy metals released to the atmosphere are partly of natural origin and partly come from previously accumulated (historical) anthropogenic depositions. Since wind re-suspension is dependent on number of local-scale environmental parameters, model estimates of re-suspension in the EMEP region are subject to high uncertainty. In addition to this, natural emission and re-emission of elemental mercury is also considered in calculations.

Most of POPs are emitted into the environment from the anthropogenic emission sources. Anthropogenic emissions of POPs can be divided into industrial and agricultural emissions. Besides some contribution can be expected from the natural sources like, for example, forest fires. Modelling of POP long-range transport and deposition requires knowledge of contemporary levels of POP emissions as well as levels of their historical emissions which are essential for the evaluation of the contribution of secondary emissions from the environmental compartments (e.g. soil, seawater). Additionally it is of importance to have sufficient temporal and spatial distribution of emissions, contributions of particular sectors, and for POPs, emitted as mixtures, contributions of emissions of individual congeners or isomers.

 

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