Joint MSC-E/RIVM Report 1/2014
"Assessment of Lead Pollution Levels in the Netherlands (EMEP case study)"
Information about emissions with fine spatial resolution in the Netherlands in 2007 was presented by the Dutch experts. It amounted to 44.7 tonnes and included emissions from 22 source categories. The most significant emissions (around 65% of the total) belonged to the category ‘Irion and steel production’, and almost all emissions from this category were presented by one large point source (LPS) ‘Corus Staal BV’ located in the west from Amsterdam.
Lead emissions in the Netherlands in 2007 with resolution 5x5 km2.
Spatial distribution of lead pollution levels over the Netherlands is not uniform. The highest air concentrations (more than 30 ng/m3) and deposition (more than 4 kg/km2/y) levels are noted for the province Noord-Holland. The levels in this province are caused mostly by LPS ‘Corus Staal BV’. According to available emission inventories it contributes more than 60% to total national emission of lead in 2007.
Calculated concentrations of Pb in air (left) and total deposition (right) in the Netherlands in 2007 with resolution 5x5 km2
Contribution from national anthropogenic sources to total deposition of lead (48 tonnes) in the Netherlands in 2007 is 18%, from foreign anthropogenic sources – 27%, from secondary sources (wind re-suspension) – 52%, and from non-EMEP sources – 3%. However, contributions of these sources may vary in particular countries.
Contribution of foreign anthropogenic emission sources, national emission sources, wind re-suspension and non-EMEP emission sources to lead deposition in the Netherlands in 2007.
Contribution of foreign emission sources to deposition from the anthropogenic sources in the Netherlands ranges from 25% to 80% over the most part of the. The main foreign contributors to lead pollution in the Netherlands are emission sources of Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom, and France. The main national contributor – sources of the Noord-Holland province.
Contribution of foreign emission sources to anthropogenic deposition of lead in the Netherlands in 2007
From 5% to 12% of lead is deposited to a territory of a province where it is emitted, and from 4 to 19% - to the other provinces. The most of lead (72-90%) emitted in the Dutch provinces is transported through the state borders to other countries. For the country as a whole 19% of emitted lead are deposited to the country’s territory.
Fractions of lead emitted in the Dutch provinces and deposited to territory of a province, to other provinces of the country and transport abroad
Contributions of emission source categories to deposition from national sources in the Netherlands were estimated. The main contribution (63%) to deposition in the country is caused by “Iron and steel production”. In provinces the contributions of different source categories vary substantially.
Contribution of different emission source categories of the Netherland to lead deposition in the country from national sources as a whole in 2007